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        2018年美国的人权纪录(全文)
        Full text: Human Rights Record of the United States in 2018

         
        Comment(s)打印 E-mail China.org.cn 2019-03-22
        调整字号大小:

        国务院新闻办公室14日发表《2018年美国的人权纪录?#32602;?#20840;文如下:



        China on Thursday published a report on the human rights situation in the United States. The report, titled "Human Rights Record of the United States in 2018," was released by the Information Office of the State Council. Following is the full text of the document:


        2018年美国的人权纪录 

        中华人民共和国 

        国务院新闻办公室 

        2019年3月



        Human Rights Record of the United States in 2018 

        State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China 

        March 2019


        目 录



        Contents


        导言



        Foreword


        一、公民权利屡遭践踏



        I. Frequent Infringement on Civil Rights


        二、金钱政治大行其道



        II. Money Politics Prevail in the United States


        三、贫富分化日益严重



        III. Income Inequality Continued to Rise


        四、种族歧视变本加厉



        IV. Worsening Racial Discrimination


        五、儿童安全令人担忧



        V.Children Face Worrisome Safety Problems


        六、性别歧视触目惊心



        VI. Shocking Gender Discrimination


        七、移民悲剧不断上演



        VII. Continuous Tragedies for Immigrants


        八、单边主义不得人心



        VIII. Unilateralism is Losing Ground


        导言



        Foreword


        当地时间3月13日,美国国务院发布《2018年国别人权报告?#32602;?#32487;续对世界上190多个国家的人权状况指手画脚、抹黑污蔑,而对自身存在的严重人权问题却置若罔闻、视而不见。如果人们对2018年美国的人权状况稍加检视便不难发现,自诩为“人权卫士”的美国政府,其人权纪录依然是劣迹斑斑、乏善可陈,其奉行的人权双重标准昭然若揭。



        On March 13 local time, the State Department of the United States released its 2018 country reports on human rights practices, continued pointing fingers at and slandering human rights situations in over 190 countries, while blindly ignoring its own serious human rights problems. If one takes a glimpse into the human rights situation of the United States in 2018, it will not be difficult to find that the United States government, a self-styled "human rights defender," has a human rights record which is flawed and lackluster, and the double standards of human rights it pursues are obvious.


        ——枪支暴力危害严重。2018年美国共发生涉枪案件57103件,导致14717人死亡、28172人受伤,其中未成年人死伤3502人。枪支暴力导致美国人均预期寿命减少近2.5岁。



        -- Gun violence poses grave danger. There were a total of 57,103 gun violence incidents in the United States in 2018, leaving 14,717 killed and 28,172 injured. The number of children and teens killed or injured was 3,502. Gun violence has shortened the life expectancy of Americans by nearly 2.5 years.


        ——宗教不宽容?#26376;?#29978;嚣尘上。在2018年美国中期选举中,反穆斯林?#26376;?#22823;幅上升。调查显示,针对穆斯林的阴谋论日益进入政治主流,“超过三分之一的候选人声称穆斯林天生暴力或构?#21892;?#22312;眉睫的威胁?#20445;?#23558;近三分之一的候选人呼吁剥夺穆斯林的基本权利或宣称伊斯兰教不是宗教?#34180;?/p>



        -- Religious intolerance remarks were on the rise. The mid-term elections in 2018 saw a surge of anti-Muslim opinions. A report found that conspiracy theories targeting Muslims have increasingly entered the political mainstream. "More than a third have claimed that Muslims are inherently violent or pose an imminent threat," and "Just under a third of the candidates considered have called for Muslims to be denied basic rights or declared that Islam is not a religion."


        ——网络监控司空见惯。美国政府的“棱镜”项目24小时运行,未经授权恣意对公民的电子邮件、?#31216;?#32593;消息、谷歌聊天、Skype网络通话等进行监听监控。



        -- Internet surveillance becomes a common practice. The warrantless wiretapping program PRISM is operating around the clock, vacuuming up emails, Facebook messages, Google chats, Skype calls, and the like.


        ——金钱操控美国政治。2018年中期选举共花费52亿美元,比上次中期选举增长35%,是有史以来最昂贵的中期选举。“美国政府成为富豪的代言人。”



        -- Money politics prevail in the United States. The total cost of the 2018 mid-term elections was 5.2 billion U.S. dollars, a 35 percent increase over 2014 in nominal dollars, making them by far the most expensive mid-term elections on record. The U.S. government is representing the super rich.


        ——沦为贫富分化最严重的西方国家。美国1%的最富有人群拥有全国38.6%的财富,而普通民众的财富总量和收入水平?#20013;?#19979;降。近半美国家庭生活拮据,1850万人生活在极端贫困?#23567;?/p>



        -- The  United  States  has  the  highest  rate  of  income  inequality  among Western countries. The share of the top 1 percent of the population in the United States owned 38.6 percent of total wealth. In relation to both wealth and income, the share of the general public has fallen continuously. Nearly half of the American households live in financial difficulties and 18.5 million Americans live in extreme poverty.


        ——仇恨犯罪再创新高。美国联邦调查局2018年11月发布的数据显示,上年度美国共发生7175起仇恨犯罪案件,同比增加约17%;其中约60%的犯罪涉种族歧视,近50%的受害者是非洲裔。



        -- Hate crimes surged to new height. A report released by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in November 2018 said hate crimes rose by about 17 percent to 7,175 cases in the United States in 2017. Offenses motivated by racial prejudice made up about 60 percent of hate crimes, with African-Americans being targeted in nearly half of them.


        ——非洲裔生存状况堪忧。美国非洲裔家庭财富的中位值只有白人的十分之一。非洲裔的贫困率是白人的2.5倍,失业率长期维持在白人的2倍左右,入狱率是白人的6倍以上,婴儿死亡率是白人的2.3倍,人均预期寿命比白人低约3.5岁。



        -- The living conditions of African-Americans are worrisome. The median white family has about 10 times as much wealth as the median black family. African Americans are 2.5 times as likely to be in poverty as whites, about twice as likely to be in unemployment as whites, and more than 6 times as likely as whites to be incarcerated. The infant mortality rate is 1.3 times higher for African Americans, whose average life expectancy is about 3.5 years shorter than whites.


        ——校园枪声不绝于耳。2018年美国发生94起校园枪击案,共有163人伤亡,是有记录以来校园枪击案数量最多、伤亡最重的一年。校园暴力?#24405;?#25968;量比上一学年增长了113%。



        -- There were endless school shootings. Last year, a total of 94 school shootings occurred across the United States and left 163 people dead or injured, making it the worst year on record with the most school shooting cases and the most severe casualties. Violent incidents in schools also increased 113 percent from the previous school year.


        ——女性深陷性骚扰和性侵恐惧。调查显示,81%的女性受访者表示在一生中经历过性骚扰,27%的女性受访者表示曾遭受性侵犯。



        -- Women are living in fear of sexual harassment and sexual assaults. A survey found that 81 percent of women interviewed had experienced some form of sexual harassment, and 27 percent said they had been sexually assaulted.


        ——移民政策致?#26500;?#32905;分离。美国政府2018年4月开始实施“零容忍”政策,导致至少2000名移民儿童被迫与家人分离。边?#25345;?#27861;人员虐待、性?#27835;?#25104;年移民案件数量惊人增长。



        -- Immigration policy separated children from parents. A new "zero tolerance" policy inaugurated by the U.S. government in April 2018 has separated at least 2,000 migrant children from their families. There has also been a startling increase in the number of instances where U.S. Border Patrol officers have mistreated or sexually abused juvenile migrants.


        ——悍然退出联合国人权理事会。《大西洋月刊》网站的报道文章?#27835;?#35748;为,美国此举最阴险的意图是为了防止自身受到侵犯人权的指控。



        -- Flagrantly withdraw from the UN Human Rights Council. The Atlantic said in an online analysis that one of the most likely, and most insidious, arguments for the move is to prevent the United States from being called out on its own alleged human-rights abuses.


        一、公民权利屡遭践踏



        I. Frequent Infringement on Civil Rights


        美国暴力犯罪案件频发,涉枪犯罪猖獗,公职人员滥用职权,监听活动肆无忌惮,新闻自由徒?#34892;?#21517;。



        The United States reported frequent occurrence of violent crime cases, rampant gun crimes and the abuse of power by public officers, while surveillance was unchecked and unscrupulous and press freedom was hollow.


        严重暴力犯罪案件频发。美国联邦调查局2018年9月发布的《2017年美国犯罪报告》显示,全年共发生暴力犯罪案件1247321起,谋杀案件17284起、强奸案件135755起、严重暴力伤害案件810825起、抢劫案件319356起。72.6%的谋杀案件、40.6%的抢劫案件和26.3%的严重暴力伤害案件为涉枪案件。(注1)芝加哥市被称为美国“最不安全”的大城市之一,近年来每年?#21152;?#20960;百人被谋杀。仅2018年8月4日和5日,该市就有74人遭枪击,其中12人死亡。成千上万的美国年轻人纷纷逃离严重暴力案件多发的城?#23567;#?#27880;2)



        Serious violent crimes took place frequently. According to the 2017 edition of the FBI's annual report, Crime in the United States, released in September 2018, there were an estimated 1,247,321 violent crimes, including 17,284 incidents of murder, 135,755 rapes, 810,825 aggravated assaults, as well as 319,356 robberies. Among the cases, 72.6 percent of murders, 40.6 percent of robberies, and 26.3 percent of aggravated assaults were committed with firearms (www.ucr.fbi.gov). Chicago was named as one of the most dangerous big cities in the United States, as hundreds of people were murdered each year in recent years. On August 4 and 5, 74 people in the city were shot, and 12 of them died. Tens of thousands of young Americans fled from the cities with rampant violent crimes (Wall Street Journal, August 9, 2018).


        枪击案件?#20013;?#39640;发。美国枪支暴力档案室网站发布的数据显示,2018年美国共发生涉枪案件57103件,导致14717人死亡、28172人受伤,其中未成年人死伤3502人。(注3)5月18日,得克萨斯州休斯敦市附近的圣达菲高中发生大规模枪击案,17岁的帕格瑞斯持猎枪和手枪射杀10人,打伤十余人。该校及周边还发现了爆炸装置。(注4)11月8日晚,?#26114;?#20891;陆战队员伊恩·大卫·朗闯入加利福尼?#20405;?#21315;橡树市一家酒吧,持枪向人群射击,杀死12人,并致多人受伤。(注5)《赫芬顿?#26102;ā?#32593;站12月6日报道,对美国2000年至2016年枪支致死官方数据的?#27835;?#21457;现,枪支暴力导致美国人均预期寿命减少近2.5岁,其中非洲裔减少4.14岁。



        Gun violence continued to be rampant. According to data from the Gun Violence Archive, the United States reported 57,103 incidents of gun violence, resulting in 14,717 deaths, 28,172 injuries, including casualties of 3,502 juveniles (www.gunviolencearchive.org, data recorded on February 24, 2019). On May 18, in a mass shooting in the Santa Fe High School near Houston, Texas, 17-year-old Dimitrios Pagourtzis killed 10 people and wounded more than 10 others with a shotgun and a pistol. Explosive devices were found inside the school and nearby (www.washingtonpost.com, May 19, 2018). On November 8, Marine Corps veteran Ian David Long broke into a bar in Thousand Oaks, California, fatally shooting 12 people and wounding many (www.nbcnews.com, November 9, 2018). The Huffington Post reported on December 6 that gun violence has shortened the life expectancy of Americans by nearly 2.5 years, with shooting driving down the average lifespan of African-Americans by 4.14 years, based on official data on gun deaths between 2000 and 2016.


        新闻自由遭受?#20843;?#26410;有打击。国?#21490;?#25919;府组织“第十九条”网站2018年5月2日报道,美国的新闻报道环境进一步恶化,记者遭到攻击、搜查、逮捕、边境拦截以及被限制发布公共信息等情况时有发生。美国政府不断公开、激烈指责?#25945;搴图?#32773;制造“假新闻?#20445;?#33829;造一种恐吓和敌意的氛围。该组织执行主任?#26032;?#26031;·休斯指出,近年来美国新闻自由受到的威胁出现了惊人的上升。(注6)《新闻周刊》网站8月16日发表文章指出,美国政府和?#25945;?#20043;间的对立在过去一年中侵蚀了美国的新闻自由。



        Press freedom suffered from unprecedented blow. According to a May 2, 2018 report from the international non-governmental organization Article 19, the environment for the press in the United States has further deteriorated, with journalists occasionally being attacked, searched, arrested, intercepted at borders, and restricted from publishing public information. The U.S. government has often publicly and vehemently accused the media and journalists of making "fake news," creating an intimidating and hostile environment. Thomas Huges, executive director of Article 19, pointed out that threats to press freedom in the United States have been climbing alarmingly in recent years (www.article19.org, May 2, 2018). Newsweek published a story on August 16 that the standoff between the U.S. government and media in the past year has eroded the country's press freedom.


        记者的合法采访权遭受侵犯。2018年11月7日,为阻止美国有线电视新闻网驻白宫记者的不断追问,白宫工作人员抢夺该名记者的话筒,并取消了?#30473;?#32773;的白宫通行证。(注7)《哥伦比亚新闻评论》网站2018年1月19日报道,2017年,美国共逮捕记者34人?#21361;?#20854;中9人被控重罪;15名记者的设备被没收,44名记者遭到人身攻击。



        The legitimate rights of interviewing by reporters were infringed. On November 7, 2018, to stop White House correspondent from CNN from asking follow-up questions, staff at the White House attempted to take the microphone away from the correspondent and revoked his press pass (uk.reuters.com, November 19, 2018). The Columbia Journalism Review reported on January 19 last year that the United States arrested journalists 34 times in 2017, nine of whom were accused of felony. The equipments of 15 journalists were confiscated, while 44 journalists suffered from personal attacks.


        宗教不宽容?#26376;?#29978;嚣尘上。英国《卫报》网站2018年10月22日报道,在2018年美国中期选举中,反穆斯林?#26376;?#22823;幅上升。调查显示,针对穆斯林的阴谋论日益进入政治主流,“超过三分之一的候选人声称穆斯林天生暴力或构?#21892;?#22312;眉睫的威胁?#20445;?#23558;近三分之一的候选人呼吁剥夺穆斯林的基本权利或宣称伊斯兰教不是宗教?#34180;?/p>



        Religious intolerance remarks were on the rise. The Guardian reported on October 22, 2018 that during the 2018 U.S. midterm elections, anti-Muslim rhetoric increased dramatically, with report showing that conspiracy theories targeting Muslims have increasingly entered the political mainstream. "More than a third have claimed that Muslims are inherently violent or pose an imminent threat," the report found, adding that "just under a third of the candidates considered have called for Muslims to be denied basic rights or declared that Islam is not a religion."


        网络监控侵犯个人隐私权。美国国家安全局、联邦调查局和中央情报局恣意收集和搜查民众的国际电子邮件、网络电话和聊天记录已经司空见惯。未经授权的“棱镜”项目24小时运行,对电子邮件、?#31216;?#32593;消息、谷歌聊天、Skype网络通话等进行监听监控。(注8)



        Online surveillance by the U.S. government infringed individual privacy. It has become a common practice by the NSA, FBI, and CIA to gather and search through American's international emails, internet calls, and chats without obtaining a warrant. The PRISM program operates around the clock, wiretapping emails, Facebook messages, Google chats, Skype calls and the like without authorization (www.aclu.org, August 22, 2018).


        大批游行示威民众遭到逮捕。《芝加哥论坛报》网站2018年6月28日报道,民众在华盛顿特区集会抗议政府移民政策时,575人被捕,多数为女性。9月4日至6日,在针对联邦最高法院大法官提名人选布雷特·卡瓦诺的抗议活动中,美国国会警察三天内逮捕了212人;10月4日又有超过300名抗议者被捕。(注9)路透社网站12月11日报道,在圣迭戈市美国边?#23576;?#34892;的要求停止拘留和驱逐中美洲移民的抗议活动中,32名宗教领袖和社会活动家被捕。



        A large number of protesters were arrested. The Chicago Tribune reported on June 28, 2018 that 575 people were arrested while protesting against the Trump administration's immigration policy in Washington D.C., most of whom were female. From September 4 to 6, U.S. Capitol Police arrested 212 people that protested Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh's confirmation hearing, and another 300-plus protestors were arrested on October 4 (chicagotribune.com, June 28, 2018; thehill.com, September 6, 2018; edition.cnn.com, October 5, 2018). Reuters reported on December 11 that 32 religious leaders and activists were arrested at the U.S. border fence in San Diego during a protest to call for an end to the detention and deportation of the Central American migrants.


        司法不公导致冤案。联合国极端贫困与人权问题特别报告员菲利普·奥尔斯顿2018年5月发布的报告指出,美国司法体系不公正,富人犯罪可通过缴?#26432;?#37322;金获得人身自由,而穷人只能被监禁。《纽约客》网站2月6日报道,美国纽约市布?#22763;?#26031;区的爱德华·加里于1995年受谋杀罪指控含冤入狱,经过23年的不懈努力才最终洗脱罪名。(注10)《华盛顿?#26102;ā?#32593;站2018年12月19日报道,美国巴尔的摩市一名?#34892;?#20844;民被指控一级谋杀罪,在案件调查阶?#21361;?#24403;地警方罔顾证人证言,既不调查他的不在场证明,也不调查其他?#21491;?#20154;,造成其?#29454;?#26381;刑长达27年。



        Miscarriage of justice resulted in wrongful convictions. In May, 2018 Philip Alston, special rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights for the UN, published a report saying that in the U.S. justice system, wealthy defendants are allowed to regain their freedom through bails while poor defendants have no choice but to stay in jail. The New Yorker reported on February 6 that a jury in Bronx of New York City vindicated Edward Garry's 23-year quest to clear his name, finding him not guilty of a 1995 murder (newyorker.com, February 6, 2018).


        The Washington Post reported on December 19, 2018 that a man from Baltimore was wrongfully convicted of first-degree murder. During the investigation of the case, local police did not investigate his alibi or other suspects, resulting in him serving 27 years in prison.


        监管人员滥用暴力。根据美国司法部网站2018年7月11日和11月8日披露的信息,美国联邦前囚犯押送官员埃里克·斯科特·金德利在任职期间曾多次?#20013;?#24615;虐性侵女囚,导致被害人身心受到严重伤害;?#33452;?#26031;安纳州安哥拉监狱多名监管人员肆意殴打毫无反抗能力的囚犯,导致犯人重伤并合谋掩盖犯罪?#29575;怠#?#27880;11)《纽约每日新闻》网站2018年12月18日援引美联社报道,南佛罗里达州的两名狱警在任职期间,殴打并恐吓多名年轻囚犯,严重侵犯?#27963;?#25276;者的人身权利。



        Public officers abusively exercised violence. According to reports released on the website of the U.S. Department of Justice on July 11 and November 8, former private prisoner transport officer Eric Scott Kindley committed, during his tenure, several armed sexual abuses or assaults on female prisoners, resulting in severe bodily and emotional harms to the victims. Several officers at the Louisiana State Penitentiary in Angola, Louisiana were found to have beaten an inmate who was handcuffed and shackled, leaving the inmate with severe injuries. They also conspired to cover up the beating (www.justice.gov). The New York Daily News reported on December 18, 2018, citing the Associated Press, that two South Florida prison guards assaulted and intimidated several young inmates, severely infringing the rights of those detained.


        二、金钱政治大行其道



        II. Money Politics Prevail in the United States


        美国2018年的中期选举竞选开销巨大,选举沦为金钱游戏,“黑钱”和腐败现象严重,政治人物腐败案件屡见不鲜,政府成为富?#26469;?#35328;人。



        The U.S. 2018 midterm elections cost a huge quantity of money. Elections became the games of money, with much involvement of "dark money" and corruption. Cases of politicians involved in corruption were not rare and the government served as the spokesperson of the rich.


        史上“最昂贵”的中期选举。美国政治响应?#34892;?018年11月8日指出,此次中期选举共花费52亿美元,比2014年增长35%,是有史以来最昂贵的中期选举。(注12)得克萨斯州的参议?#26412;?#36873;成为美国历史上最奢侈的国会议?#26412;?#36873;。其中仅民主党候选人贝?#23567;?#22885;罗克一人就筹集了创纪录的6910万美元。(注13)



        The "most expensive" midterm elections in history. The 2018 midterm elections were proved to be by far the most expensive ones on record. The final cost of 2018 midterm elections stood at 5.2 billion U.S. dollars, a 35 percent increase over 2014 in nominal dollars, the Center for Responsive Politics said on November 8, 2018 (www.opensecrets.org, November 8, 2018). The Texas Senate race was the most expensive House or Senate race in U.S. history, with Democrat candidate Beto O'Rourke alone setting a record by raising 69.1 million U.S. dollars (www.usatoday.com, November 16, 2018).


        秘密捐助资金和“黑钱”大行其道。美国全国广播公司新闻网2018年7月21日报道,美国财政部宣布不再要求大多数非营利组织报告捐赠来源,大大降低选举的?#35813;?#24230;。在2018年美国中期选举中,候选人竞选委?#34987;?#20197;外的外?#23458;?#20307;花费的“黑钱”达到了创纪录的9800万美元。在外?#23458;?#20307;为影响国会选举而播放的电视广告中,超过40%是秘密捐赠者?#25163;?#30340;。在参议院和众议院竞选中,有超过四分之一的广告?#25163;?#26469;自不披露捐赠者的团体。上次中期选举以来,联邦竞选中由这类“黑钱”团体播放的广告?#38382;?#22686;加了26%。(注14)



        Secret money donations and "dark money" swept over the elections. According to an NBC report on July 21, 2018, U.S. Treasury Department announced that it would no longer require most non-profit organizations to report their donors, making elections much less transparent. During the 2018 midterms, a record high of 98 million U.S. dollars in dark money were spent by outside groups other than the candidates' campaign committees. More than 40 percent of television advertisements broadcast by outside groups to influence congressional elections were financed by secret donors and over one-fourth of the advertising funds for House and Senate elections came from groups that did not disclose their donors. Airings by "dark money" groups in federal races since the 2014 midterms jumped by 26 percent (www.usatoday.com, July 12 and November 16, 2018).


        选举腐败愈演愈烈。英国《卫报》网站2018年8月7日报道,公众普遍认为美国选举是腐败的,国会议员被企业、富人和特殊利益集团俘获。赢得一个参议院席位的平均成本为1940万美元。赢得一个众议院席位平均至少要花费150万美元。选举过程中存在大量“以金钱换选票”的舞弊现象。《纽约时报》网站11月20日报道,洛杉矶地方检察官指出,有9人被指控向无家可归者支付1美元?#22270;?#25903;香烟,以换取他们在选民登记表上签名。



        Electoral corruption became severer. The Guardian reported on August 7, 2018, that U.S. elections were widely seen to be corrupt by the public. Members of Congress were viewed to be captured by corporations, wealthy donors and special interests groups. The average cost of winning a Senate seat was 19.4 million U.S. dollars while winning a House of Representatives seat would cost at least 1.5 million U.S. dollars on average. Election fraud such as using money in exchange for votes was common. According to a report of The New York Times on its website on November 20, 2018, the Los Angeles district attorney announced that nine people had been charged with paying homeless people with one dollar bills and some cigarettes in exchange for signing names on voter registration forms.


        政府成为富?#26469;?#35328;人。联合国极端贫困与人权问题特别报告员菲利普·奥尔斯顿2018年5月发布报告指出,美国内阁?#31245;?#30340;财富总额达43亿美元,政府已经成为富豪的代言人。根据美国司法部网站4月30日披露的信息,前阿肯色州参议员、州众议员亨利·威尔金斯收受贿金,按照政治说客的意图进行投票。《迈阿密先驱报》8月2日报道,佛罗里达州州长斯科特受说客影响,削减7亿美元的水资源管理费,导致爆发大型?#26114;?#28526;”藻类危机,造成海洋生物死亡,严重危害临海居民健康。



        U.S. Government served as the spokesperson of the rich. According to a report released by Philip G. Alston, special rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights for the UN, the combined wealth of the United States cabinet reached about 4.3 billion U.S. dollars, turning the U.S. government into the spokesperson of the rich people. Former Arkansas State Senator and State Representative Henry Wilkins accepted bribes in exchange for voting in favor of the intentions of lobbyists, according to a statement on the website of U.S. Justice Department on April 30, 2018. Influenced by lobbyists, Florida governor Rick Scott cut 700 million U.S. dollars in funding for water management, Miami Herald reported on August 2, 2018. The reduction led to a severe red tide crisis, causing the death of marine life and endangering the health of coastal residents.


        政治人物腐败丑闻层出不穷。《迈阿密先驱报》2018年12月8日报道,佛罗里达州塔拉哈西市前市长马多克斯被指控44项罪名,包括受贿、勒索和欺诈等。《休斯敦纪事报》网站6月8日报道,一名得克萨斯州著名参议员试图利用她的影响力阻止对其拥有的一家酒吧的调查。英国《周刊报道》网站12月14日刊发题为?#26696;?#36133;正在侵蚀美国民主”的文章,指出企业通过竞选捐款和利益回报?#20449;?#20440;获美国政?#20572;?#20351;政客代表他们的利益立法。



        Politicians' corruption scandals were seen constantly. Former Tallahassee mayor Scott Maddox faced a 44-count indictment including bribery, extortion and fraud, Miami Herald reported on December 8, 2018. A prominent Texas senator was accused of using her influence to try to end an investigation into a bar she and her husband owned, according to the website of the Houston Chronicle on June 8, 2018. The Week published an article titled "Corruption is eroding American democracy" on its website on December 14, 2018, saying corporations captured U.S. politicians with campaign donations and promises of future bribes so that politicians would make legislations on behalf of their businesses.


        民众对美国政治持悲观态度。皮尤研?#24656;行?018年4月26日公布的一项针对美国民主和政治体制的调查显示,53%的受访者认为美国没有做到?#30333;?#37325;所有人的权利和自由?#34180;!?#26032;闻周刊》网站6月26日报道,民意调查显示,55%的受访者认为目前美国的民主?#26114;?#34180;弱?#20445;?8%的受访者认为美国的民主正在“变得越来越弱?#34180;?/p>



        The public had pessimistic attitudes towards U.S. politics. A Pew Research Center survey on American democracy and the political system released on April 26 2018, showed 53 percent of the surveyed said the United States did not respect "the rights and freedoms of all people." The Newsweek reported on June 26, 2018 that a poll showed 55 percent of Americans said democracy in the United States was "weak" currently, and 68 percent said they believed democracy in the United States was "getting weaker."


        三、贫富分化日益严重



        III. Income Inequality Continued to Rise


        美国贫困率维?#25351;?#20301;,贫富差距?#20013;?#25193;大,近半家庭生活拮据,低收入者缺乏医疗保险,无家可归者人数居高不下。



        Poverty rate in the United States remained high. Income inequality continued to rise. Almost half of American households lived under financial strain. Low-income populations lacked health insurance. The number of homeless people stayed high.


        沦为贫富分化最严重的西方国家。美国人口普查的数据显示,2017年美国?#24615;?200万贫困人口,约占总人口的13.4%。超过500万全年?#37038;?#20840;职工作的美国人年收入低于贫困线。布鲁金斯学会发布的报告显示,残疾人通常更难?#19994;?#31283;定的工作,也更难挣到高于贫困线的工资。残疾人的贫困率为25.7%。(注15)



        The United States had the highest rate of income inequality among Western countries. The U.S. Census estimated that 13.4 percent of Americans, about 42 million, lived below the poverty line in 2017. More than 5 million Americans who work full-time jobs year-round earned less than the poverty line. According to a report by the Brookings Institution, the disabled generally had a harder time finding steady work and earning above-poverty wages. About 25.7 percent of the disabled lived in poverty (www.usatoday.com, October 10, 2018 and November 19, 2018).


        联合国极端贫困与人权问题特别报告员菲利普·奥尔斯顿2018年5月发布报告指出,美国已经沦为贫富分化最严重的西方国家,1850万美国人生活在极端贫困中,青年贫困?#31034;?#32463;合组织?#31245;?#22269;之首。2016年,1%的最富有人群拥有全国38.6%的财富,而普通民众的财富总量和收入水平在过去25年总体呈下降趋势。奥尔斯顿进一步指出,美国政府近年来推行系列刺激经济增长措施,但发展成果仅惠及富人,普通民众并未获益。“美国政府以牺牲社会福利为代价,对大公司和富有阶层实施?#20843;?#26410;有的大规模减税计划,该策?#36816;?#20046;是为扩大不平等而量身定制。?#20445;?#27880;16)



        In May 2018 Philip G. Alston, the United Nation's special rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights, published a report saying the United States had the highest rate of income inequality among Western countries. According to the report, 18.5 million Americans lived in extreme poverty. The country had the highest youth poverty rate in countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). In 2016, the top one percent of the richest population in the United States owned 38.6 percent of total wealth. In relation to both wealth and income the share of the common people had fallen in most of the past 25 years. Alston further pointed out that the U.S. government's series of economic stimulus measures in recent years only benefited the rich, not the common people. "The U.S. government's policies provide unprecedentedly high tax breaks to the very wealthy and the largest corporations and pay for these partly by reducing welfare benefits for the poor. The tax reform will worsen inequality."(www.washingtonpost.com, June 25, 2018)


        近半美国家庭生活拮据。2018年7月17日,美国参议员伯尼·桑德斯在《今日美国报》网站发表署名文章指出,43%的美国家庭入不敷出,只能借债支付住房、?#31216;貳?#20799;童护理、医疗、交通和通讯费用。美国城市研?#20811;?#35843;查发现,近40%的青壮年表示收入难?#26376;?#36275;?#31216;貳?#21355;生保健、住房和公用事业?#28982;?#26412;需求。(注17)



        Almost half of American households lived in financial difficulties. On July 17, 2018, U.S. Senator Bernie Sanders wrote in an article published on the USA Today website, saying 43 percent of U.S. households lived paycheck to paycheck and can't afford to pay for their housing, food, child care, health care, transportation and their cell phone without going into debt. The Urban Institute's survey found that nearly 40 percent of non-elderly adults reported difficulty meeting basic needs such as food, health care, housing, and utilities (www.usatoday.com, July 17, 2018 and October 1, 2018).


        低收入病?#26082;?#20047;医疗保险。联合国极端贫困与人权问题特别报告员菲利普·奥尔斯顿2018年5月发布报告指出,美国社会保?#29616;贫?#23384;在缺陷,四分之一全职工作者和四分之三兼职工作者没有带薪病假,44%的成年人无力支付或需要变卖财产和借债才能支?#37117;本?#21307;疗费用。(注18)盖洛普咨询公司2018年11月进行的年度调查显示,46%的受访者担心没有足够的钱来支付医疗费用。(注19)城市研?#20811;?#30340;?#27835;?#26174;示,得克萨斯州65岁以下居民中高达19%没有保险,人数多达470万。(注20)



        Low-income populations lacked health insurance. In May 2018, Philip G. Alston, the United Nation's special rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights, published a report saying almost a quarter of full-time workers, and three quarters of part-time workers, received no paid sick leave. About 44 per cent of adults either could not cover an emergency expense or would need to sell something or borrow money to do it (www.washingtonpost.com, June 25, 2018). Gallup's annual poll, conducted in November 2018, found 46 percent of U.S. adults worry about not having enough money to pay for their healthcare (news.gallup.com, December 10, 2018). According to a new Urban Institute analysis, Texas had 19 percent of uninsured residents under age 65, totaling 4.7 million (abcnews.go.com, December 17, 2018).


        无家可归者人数居高不下。美国住房和城市发?#20849;?#30340;数据显示,超过50万美国人没有固定居所。许多无家可归者急需医疗救助并?#21152;?#31934;神疾病。(注21)加利福尼?#20405;?018年4月发布的审计报告指出,2017年加利福尼?#20405;?#26080;家可归者人数达到134278人,比2016年增加16136人,居全国之首。(注22)在俄亥俄州的?#21015;聊?#25552;,无家可归者在市?#34892;?#38468;近安营扎寨。当地法官罗伯特·?#38472;?#21364;宣称无家可归者营地是一种公害,并禁止在市?#34892;?#21450;周边地区建立这种营地。(注23)



        The number of homeless people stayed high. According to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, more than half a million Americans lacked permanent shelters. Many homeless individuals were in dire need of medical attention and suffered from mental illnesses (www.usatoday.com, October 1, 2018).  According to an audit report issued by the State of California in April 2018, the state had the largest number of homeless population in the nation, reaching 134,278 in 2017, an increase of 16,136 people over 2016 (www.auditor.ca.gov). In Cincinnati of Ohio, homeless people set up camps near the heart of the city. But a local judge named Robert Ruehlman declared homeless camps a public nuisance and banned them in the affected part of downtown. He later expanded the ban to include most of the city and all of surrounding Hamilton County (www.usatoday.com, August 14, 2018).


        吸毒致死和自杀人数?#20013;?#25856;升。美国疾病控制与预防?#34892;?018年发布的报告显示,2014年以来,美国因吸毒致死人数年均增加16%,2017年超过7万人。自杀是美国的第十大死因。1999年以来,美国的自杀率上升了33%,2017年自杀人数超过4.7万。(注24)



        Drug overdose deaths and suicides continued to rise. A report issued by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said drug overdose deaths among U.S. residents exceeded 70,000 in 2017. The rate had increased on average by 16 percent per year since 2014. Suicide was the 10th leading cause of death in the U.S. Since 1999, the suicide rate had climbed 33 percent. In 2017, more than 47,000 Americans killed themselves (nytimes.com, August 15, 2018).


        四、种族歧视变本加厉



        IV. Worsening Racial Discrimination


        美国长期存在?#20302;?#24615;种族歧视,少数种族选举权遭到限制,执法司法领域种族歧视未见改善,仇恨犯罪猖獗,少数种族处?#35817;?#24230;不利地位。



        Systematic racial discrimination has long existed in the United States. Ethnic minorities faced restrictions in exercising their voting rights. The law enforcement and judicial departments made no progress in reducing racial discrimination. Hate crimes were common. Minorities were at an extremely disadvantageous position.


        ?#20302;?#24615;种族歧视遭到联合国批评。联合国消除种族歧视委?#34987;?#31532;九十三届会议报告,以及联合国当代?#38382;?#31181;族歧视问题特别报告员根据联合国大会决议撰写的报告指出,美国社会长期存在白人至上、煽动种族歧视和仇恨?#26376;?#31561;现象。美国政府未能明确拒绝和遏制有关种族主义暴力?#24405;?#21644;示威,包括总统在内的政府高官宣扬仇外的民族民粹主义?#26376;郟?#21033;用纸质?#25945;?#21644;社交?#25945;?#21457;表种族主义和仇外?#26376;邸#?#27880;25)



        Systematic racial discrimination was criticized by the United Nations. According to the report of the ninety-third session of the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and the report of the UN Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance prepared pursuant to a UN General Assembly resolution, the phenomena of promoting white supremacy and inciting racial discrimination and hatred have long existed in American society. The United States failed to unequivocally reject and contain racist violent events and demonstrations. High-level politicians and public officials, including the President, propagated nationalist and populist remarks, and published racist and xenophobic statements on print and social media (UN documents A/73/18, A/73/312, A/73/305).


        少数种族选民的选举权被剥夺。美国公民自由联合会网站2018年10月12日报道,北达科他州?#36139;?#38480;制性法?#26705;?#35201;求选民在投票时出示当前居住地址的证明文件。由于许多居住在?#35760;?#20445;留地的印第安人没有街道地址,这项法律剥夺了数千名印第安人的选举权。《天主教国家纪事报》网站5月22日报道,2010年以来,美国有23个州通过?#22235;持中问?#30340;选民压制法,其中有17个州针对的是印第安人等?#26519;?#23621;民。英国路透社网站11月28日报道,佐治?#20405;?#22312;中期选举中实施?#24052;?#20840;匹配”政策,大量选民的投票权处于待定状态,其中70%是非洲裔,而非洲裔仅?#20960;?#22320;区总人口的三分之一。英国《经济学人》网站8月11日评论称,美国南方一些州?#36139;?#27861;?#26705;?#23545;非洲裔选民行使选举权实施严苛限制,“?#36335;?#20351;美国倒退到不?#24066;?#40657;人投票的20世纪初?#34180;?/p>



        Minority voters were disenfranchised. According to a report of the American Civil Liberties Union on October 12, 2018, North Dakota's restrictive voter ID law required voters to bring to the polls an ID that displays a current residential street address. As many of Native Americans live on reservations in rural areas and don't have street addresses, the law disenfranchised thousands of Native Americans. Twenty-three states since 2010 have passed some type of voter suppression law, while 17 have voter suppression laws that target Native Americans and other indigenous people, according to an online report of the National Catholic Reporter. The Reuters website reported on November 28, 2018 that during the mid-term elections, due to an "exact match" policy adopted in Georgia, 70 percent of the voters whose registrations were pending before the election were black. African-Americans account for about one-third of the state's population. On August 11, 2018, the Economist commented on its website that in the south of the United States, some states adopted laws to impose rigid requirements on African-American voters. "They seem to push America back towards the early 20th century, when blacks were systematically prevented from voting."


        非洲裔因肤色而成为警方枪击的无辜受害者。英国广播公司网站2018年11月12日报道,芝加哥?#35760;?#19968;家酒吧的26岁非洲裔保安杰梅尔·罗伯?#20998;?#26381;了一名持枪?#25918;?#23244;犯,但赶到的警察却开枪射杀了正在控制嫌犯的罗伯逊。目击者称,当时大家都在喊?#20843;?#26159;一个保安?#20445;?#20294;警察看到持枪的是非洲裔男子,还是向他开了枪。11月22日感恩节当晚,?#25250;?#24052;马州一家购物?#34892;?#20869;发生枪击案,21岁的非洲裔男子小伊曼蒂克·菲茨杰拉德·布拉德福德在帮助其他顾客脱离险境时,却被警方视为枪手而击?#23567;?#30446;击者称,他当时并未对任何人构成威胁。律师本·?#27515;?#26222;?#25285;骸安?#25289;德福德无?#24524;?#21629;令人震惊,再次证明非洲裔?#34892;?#20165;因肤色就被视作威胁而遭枪杀。?#20445;?#27880;26)



        African-Americans became innocent victims of police shooting because of their skin color. According to a BBC report on November 12, 2018, Jemel Roberson, a 26-year-old African-American security guard, was holding down a suspected armed attacker at a bar in suburban Chicago, but police shot and killed him upon arrival. A witness recounted that everybody was screaming out "he was a security guard," but police still did their job and saw a black man with a gun and opened fire on him.


        On the Thanksgiving night of November 22, after a gunfire happened at an Alabama mall, Emantic "EJ" Fitzgerald Bradford Jr., a 21-year-old black who was helping other shoppers to safety, was mistaken for the gunman and shot three times from behind by police. Witnesses said he posed no threat to anyone at that time. Fitzgerald's "senseless death is the latest egregious example of a black man killed because he was perceived to be a threat due to the color of his skin," the newspaper quoted Ben Crump, the lawyer for Fitzgerald's family, as saying. (www.usatoday.com, December 4, 2018).


        ?#21069;?#20811;?#24405;?#20984;显非洲裔面临广泛歧?#21360;?018年4月12日,两名非洲裔男子进入费?#20405;行?#22478;区一家?#21069;?#20811;咖啡店使用洗手间,遭?#38477;暝本?#32477;并被要求离开。在二人拒绝离开后店员报警,警察赶到现场逮捕了他们。这一种族歧视行径引起?#26031;?#27867;抗议。费城警察局长起初辩称警察的做法“绝对没有任?#26410;?#35823;?#20445;?#21518;迫于压力才不得不作出道歉。舆论认为,这一?#24405;?#35753;很多费城人目睹和重温了“种族定性的历?#21453;?#20260;?#34180;#?#27880;27)英国《卫报》网站5月28日发表评论文章指出,?#21069;?#20811;?#24405;?#26174;示出有色人种尤其是非洲裔美国人每天面临的歧?#21360;#?#27880;28)



        The Starbucks incident highlighted common discrimination against African Americans. On April 12, 2018, two African Americans entered a Starbucks in downtown Philadelphia and asked to use the restroom. But they were refused by store employees, and wouldn't leave when asked by the employees to do so. Police came and arrested them on the spot. This discriminatory act sparked protests. Philadelphia Police Commissioner Richard Ross at first defended that the police officers "didn't do anything wrong", but later apologized due to pressure. Philadelphia Mayor Jim Kenney said that the arrest caused many Philadelphians to witness and relive "the trauma of racial profiling" (www.usatoday.com, April 15, 2018; abcnews.go.com, April 19, 2018). Many say the Starbucks incident exposed discrimination that people of color and black people in particular face every day, said a report by the Guardian (www.theguardian.com, May 28, 2018).


        少数族裔遭受司法歧?#21360;!?#32445;约时报》网站2018年6月7日报道,截至2017年,在舆论广泛关注的15起警察枪杀非洲裔案件中,只有一名警察被判入狱。美国死刑信息?#34892;?2月14日发布的全国死刑与种族统计数据显示,1976年以来的跨种族犯罪被执行死刑的案件中,有290名非洲裔因杀害白人而被执行死刑;相比之下,在白人是凶手而非洲裔是受害者的案件中,被执行死刑的白人仅有20人。(注29)《华盛顿?#26102;ā?#32593;站7月29日报道,根据对近10年美国大城市杀人案的统计数据,杀死白人的犯罪?#21491;?#20154;被捕的可能性为63%,而杀死非洲裔的犯罪?#21491;?#20154;被捕的可能性仅为47%。



        Minorities suffered judicial discrimination. As of late 2017, in 15 high-profile cases involving deaths of black people, only one officer faces prison time, according to the website of The New York Times on June 7, 2018. According to the national statistics on the death penalty and race released by the U.S. Death Penalty Information Center on December 14, 2018, among the persons executed for interracial murders in the United States since 1976, the number of black defendants executed for the murder of white victims reached 290. In contrast, only 20 white defendants were executed for murdering black victims (deathpenaltyinfo.org, December 14, 2018). According to the Washington Post's analysis on July 29 of homicide arrest data, in the past decade, police arrested someone in 63 percent of the killings of white victims while they did so in just 47 percent of those with black victims.


        涉种族歧视的仇恨犯罪再创新高。《洛杉矶时报》网站2018年11月13日报道,联邦调查局发布的报告显示,2017年美国的仇恨犯罪创2001年以来的最大年?#26085;?#24133;,上升超过17%。在7175起仇恨犯罪案件中,约60%的犯罪涉种族歧视,近50%的受害者是非洲裔。《纽约时报》网站9月20日报道,白人退伍军人詹姆斯·哈里斯·杰克?#33452;?#24974;恨跨种族婚?#25285;?#31574;划杀死几名与白人妇女在一起的非洲裔男?#21360;?#20316;为预先演练,他于2017年3月用短剑残忍杀害一名66岁的非洲裔男?#21360;?/p>



        Racial discrimination-related hate crimes reached a record high. Hate crimes rose in the United States by more than 17 percent in 2017, the biggest annual increase in reported hate crimes since 2001. Around 60 percent of the 7, 175 hate crimes were related to racial discrimination and nearly half of the victims were African Americans, according to a report of the Los Angeles Times on November 13, 2018.


        James Harris Jackson, a white Army veteran, planned to murder several black men in the company of white women because of his hatred of interracial dating. As a "practice" for a larger racial terror attack, he cruelly killed a 66-year-old black with a short sword in March 2017, The New York Times reported on September 20, 2018.


        反犹太主义酿成惨剧。2018年10月27日,46岁的白人男子罗伯特·鲍尔斯携带步枪、手枪等武器,闯入位于宾夕法尼?#20405;?#21305;?#32570;?#24066;的犹太人教堂,高喊反犹太主义极端口号,向正在教堂内礼拜的教徒进行了20分钟的扫射,致11人死亡、6人受伤。这是美国历史上犹太人社区遭受的最为致命的攻击。(注30)美国有线电视新闻网12月12日报道,反犹太人的宣传册在整个匹?#32570;?#24066;传播,纽约州立大学多个地点还出现?#22235;?#31929;主题的海报。一名21岁的男子因涉嫌在托莱多市的犹太人教堂密谋杀害礼拜者而被捕。联邦调查局发布的报告显示,2017年反犹太人犯罪增加37%,达938起。(注31)



        Anti-Semitism Prevails. Robert Bowers, a 46-year-old white, stormed into the Tree of Life Congregation Synagogue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, with a rifle and handguns, shouting anti-Semitic slogans. He opened fire on worshipers in a 20-minute attack, killing 11 people and injuring six others. The attack was believed to be the deadliest on the Jewish community in U.S. history (edition.cnn.com, November 27, 2018; www.usatoday.com, October 29, 2018). Anti-Semitic pamphlets were spread throughout Pittsburgh. Nazi-themed posters were found in various locations around the State University of New York. A 21-year-old man was arrested for allegedly plotting to kill worshipers in a Jewish synagogue in Toledo, a CNN report said on December 12. There were 938 hate crimes against Jewish people in 2017, a 37 percent increase in anti-Jewish crimes, according to an FBI report (www.latimes.com, November 13, 2018).


        非洲裔经济状况堪忧。美国经济政策研?#20811;?#32593;站2018年2月26日发表的评论文章指出,非洲裔家庭财富中位值是白人的十分之一。非洲裔的失业率长期维持在白人的2倍左右,贫困率是白人的2.5倍。(注32)消除无家可归问题联盟网站6月6日报道,非洲裔占美国总人口的13%,占无家可归者总数的比例却超过40%。(注33)



        The economic condition of African Americans is worrisome. The Economic Policy Institute reported on its website on February 26, 2018 that the median white family had almost 10 times as much wealth as the median black family. It also pointed out that the black unemployment rate has been roughly twice the white unemployment rate for a long time and African Americans were 2.5 times as likely to be in poverty as whites (www.epi.org, February 26, 2018). African Americans represent 13 percent of the general population, but more than 40 percent of the homeless population is African Americans, the National Alliance to End Homelessness reported (endhomelessness.org, June 6. 2018).


        种族歧视导致种族健康差异。《赫芬顿?#26102;ā?#32593;站2018年2月5日报道,非洲裔?#21450;?#30151;、中风、心脏病等十大致死疾病的死亡率明显高于白人。有充分的证据表明,由于个体和?#36139;?#23618;面的歧视导致了这种健康上的种族差异。美国经济政策研?#20811;?#32593;站2月26日报道,非洲裔婴儿死亡率是白人的2.3倍,非洲裔的人均预期寿命比白人低约3.5岁。



        Racial discrimination causes health disparities. When looking at the 10 leading causes of death in the United States, including cancer, stroke and heart disease, mortality rates among black Americans were higher than among white Americans. Compelling evidence suggests both individual- and institutional-level discrimination causes this disparity, the Huffington Post reported on February 5, 2018. The infant mortality rate of black infants was 2.3 times higher than white infants. An African American born today on average, still expect to live about 3.5 fewer years than a white person born on the same day, according a report from the Economic Policy Institute on February 26, 2018.


        金融领域种族歧视严重。《洛杉矶时报》网站2018年5月27日报道,联邦消费者金融保护局的数据显示,在所有贷款类型中,非洲裔申请人被拒绝的比例是非拉美裔白人的2倍以上。非洲裔和拉美裔还被收取更高的贷款利率,他们通常要承担比平均利率高出1.5个百分点的年利率。



        Serious racial discrimination exists in the financial sector. Black applicants were rejected at more than double the rate of non-Hispanic white applicants on all types of loans, data with the federal Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection showed. Black and Hispanic applicants were charged interest rates more often at least 1.5 percentage points above the "average prime offer rate" for loans of a similar type, Los Angeles Times reported on May 27, 2018.


        五、儿童安全令人担忧



        V.Children Face Worrisome Safety Problems


        美国校园枪击案高发,校园暴力广泛存在,政府对侵犯、虐待儿童的行为监管不力,儿童人身安全、身心健康和生存环境令人担忧。



        The high incidence of school shootings, widespread school violence and lack of effective government oversight of children abuse has posed a threat to American children both physically and mentally and their living environment is worrisome.


        校园枪击案频发。英国广播公司新闻网2018年12月12日报道,2018年是自1970年有记录以来美国校园枪击?#24405;?#21457;生数量最多的年份,也是造成伤亡最严重的一年。根据美国国土防御和安全?#34892;?#20197;及联邦紧急事务管理局发布的数据,2018年已发生94起校园枪击案,共有163人伤亡,超过了1986年创下的伤亡97人的最高纪录。2018年2月14日,19岁的尼古拉斯·克鲁兹携枪支和多个弹匣,进入佛罗里达州的一所高中并拉响火灾警报,趁大量学生跑出教室时,用半自动步枪扫射,造成17人死亡、至少14人受伤。(注34)皮尤研?#24656;行?#32593;站4月18日报道,57%的青少年受访者表示担心学校可能发生枪击?#24405;?3%的?#25913;?#21463;访者表示担心孩子所在学校可能发生枪击?#24405;?/p>



        School shootings frequently occurred. According to a BBC report on December 12, 2018, the year of 2018 has had the highest number of incidents ever recorded, in figures going back to 1970, and has been the worst year for deaths and injuries. Data from the U.S. Center for Homeland Defense and Security and the Federal Emergency Management Agency showed that there were 94 gun incidents in U.S. schools in 2018, with 163 casualties, compared with a previous high of 97 in 1986. On February 14, 2018, 19-year-old Nikolas Cruz, equipped with a gun and multiple magazines of ammunition, opened fire at a Florida high school, killing 17 people and injuring at least 14. Cruz had pulled the fire alarm and then started shooting with the semi-automatic weapon at students who came pouring out of the classrooms (www.usatoday.com, February 14, 2018). According to a report by Pew Research Center on April 18, 2018, 57 percent of teens surveyed said they were worried about the possibility of a shooting happening at their school, while 63 percent of parents of teenagers said they were at least somewhat worried about the possibility of a shooting happening at their child's school.


        校园暴力问题凸显。2017-2018学年,美国校园暴力?#24405;?#25968;量比上一学年增长了113%。针对27个州超过16万名中学生的调查显示,近40%的初中生和27%的高中生受访者表示曾经遭受校园欺凌。(注35)《美国学校与大学?#21448;盡?#32593;站12月10日报道,佛罗里达州超过600所学校未按法律要求向州政府报告校园内发生的违法犯罪行为。



        The problem of school violence is prominent. Violent incidents in U.S. schools increased 113 percent during the past 2017-2018 school year. According to a survey based on responses from more than 160,000 secondary students in 27 states, nearly 40 percent of middle-schoolers said they'd been bullied while 27 percent of high-schoolers said the same (www.usatoday.com, August 14 and September 24, 2018). American School & University reported on December 10, 2018 that more than 600 schools in Florida failed to report crimes that took place on campus to the state each year.


        儿童受虐状况严重。根据美国疾病预防与控制?#34892;?#30340;统计,四分之一的美国儿童遭受过虐待。(注36)《得克萨斯州论坛报》网站2018年12月6日报道,过去十年中,得克萨斯州多家托儿所的数百名儿童受?#33050;?#24453;,其中88名儿童死亡。英国《卫报》网站12月18日报道,位于马萨诸塞州坎顿市的一所教育?#34892;?#32463;常使用高功率电击惩罚学生,一些人承受的电流强度远超过电击枪释放的电流。美洲人权委?#34987;?#32597;见地发出正式通知,要求该机构立即停止实施电击“酷刑?#34180;?/p>



        Children suffer from serious threats of abuse. According to statistics from U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an estimated 1 in 4 children in America experienced maltreatment at some point in their lives (www.usatoday.com, July 26, 2018). Texas Tribune reported on December 6, 2018, hundreds of children were abused and 88 died of abuse and neglect in Texas day care facilities in the last decade. According to a report by The Guardian on December 18, 2018, an education center in Canton, Massachusetts, routinely inflicted high-powered electric shocks as a form of punishment on students, with individuals being zapped with electric currents far more powerful than those discharged by stun guns. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights issued a rare formal notice known as "precautionary measures" that calls for immediate cessation of the electric shocks.


        神职人员实施性虐待。美国哥伦比?#26538;?#25773;公司网站2018年8月15日报道,宾夕法尼?#20405;?00多名天主教牧师在过去几十年间对大量儿童实施性虐待,受害者超过1000人。相关教会高层一直设法掩盖真相。伊利诺?#26519;?#26816;察长发布的报告显示,该州天主教会有690名神职人员涉嫌性侵儿童。(注37)《福特沃兹-星电讯报》12月9日报道,分布在美国40个州的原教旨浸会教教堂的百余位神职人员,被指控对儿童实施性犯罪。



        Children fall victims to priest sexual abuse. According to a CBS report on August 15, 2018, more than 300 Catholic priests in Pennsylvania committed sexual abuse against a large number of children over a period of decades, with more than 1,000 victims, while senior church officials took steps to cover it up. A report from Attorney General in Illinois showed that 690 Catholic priests were suspected of sexual abuse against children in the state (www.chicagotribune.com, December 19, 2018). According to a report by Star-Telegram on December 9, 2018, more than one hundred clergies from fundamental Baptist churches spanning 40 U.S. states were accused of committing sexual crimes against children.


        政府疏于对儿童权利的保护。《芝加哥论坛报》网站2018年7月13日报道,在一些州政府的?#24656;剖昭低?#20013;,儿童领养过程缺乏?#35813;?#24230;,多年来一直存在忽视被?#26157;?#20799;童生存环境等问题,?#38498;?#22810;虐待?#26157;?#20799;童的报告视而不见。联邦政府和州政府缺乏?#34892;?#30417;?#21073;?#23548;致被?#26157;?#20799;童受虐或被害?#24405;?#26102;有发生。11月28日,《迈阿密先驱报》基于对法院卷宗的梳理发表关于大富豪爱泼斯坦进行未成年少女性交易的长篇调查报道。2001年至2005年,爱泼斯坦涉嫌?#31456;?#20182;国未成年少女为其权贵朋友提供性服务,被害人超过80人。联邦检察官与其达成认罪交易,仅以一项罪名判其服刑13个月,并不再调查涉案权贵客户名单。报道指有政府高官帮助促成了这一极轻量刑的交易。



        The U.S. government neglected the protection of children's rights. According to a report by Chicago Tribune on July 13, 2018, in some states, the adoption system lacks transparency and issues such as the living conditions of adopted children and reports of child abuse have been ignored for years. The lack of effective oversight by the federal and state governments has led to frequent incidents of abuse or murder of adopted children. On November 28, 2018, the Miami Herald published a lengthy investigative report on multimillionaire Jeffrey Epstein's underage girl sex trafficking based on a review of court filings. Between 2001 and 2005, Epstein allegedly abducted and trafficked underage girls from other countries and forced them to provide sexual services to his bigwig friends, with more than 80 victims. Federal prosecutors forged a plea deal with Epstein to sentence him to 13 months in prison on only one count and end investigation into potential co-conspirators in the case. The report said some senior government official had helped broker the deal for such light conviction.


        儿童贫困现象严重。美国农业部发布的数据显示,约六分之一的美国儿童生活在食物缺乏稳定保障的家庭中,经常忍饥挨饿,人数超过1300万。美国人口普查局的统计数据显示,有20.2%的5岁以下儿童生活在贫困?#23567;#?#27880;38)



        Children are suffering from poverty. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, more than 13 million children — about one in six — in the United States live in families with inconsistent access to food. These children can experience hunger on a regular basis. According to figures released by U.S. Census Bureau, 20.2 percent of American children under 5-years-old live in poverty (www.usatoday.com, October 1 and October 10, 2018).


        六、性别歧视触目惊心



        VI. Shocking Gender Discrimination


        美国女性遭受性骚扰和性侵犯的严重威胁,人身安全缺乏保障,面临明显的就业和职场歧?#21360;?/p>



        The U.S. women faced severe threat in terms of sexual harassment and sexual assault, with personal safety in lack of protection. They also face obvious discrimination of employment and in workplace.


        性骚扰和性侵犯频发。美国国家公共电台2018年2月21日报道,根据在线调查,81%的女性受访者表示在一生中经历过?#25345;中问?#30340;性骚扰,51%的女性受访者表示曾经遭到身体骚扰,27%的女性受访者表示曾遭受性侵犯。(注39)《得?#33452;?#32426;事报》10月14日报道,艾奥瓦州大约24名议员或议会工作人?#26412;?#20837;到安德森性骚扰案件?#23567;?#21463;害人由于担心失业或报复,10余年来不得不保持?#32842;?#35813;州政府因此案赔偿了175万美元。《今日美国报》9月26日报道,性骚扰、性侵犯在?#32654;?#22366;已经成为?#20302;?#24615;问题。根据对全行业的调查,94%的受访女性表示在职业生涯中经历过?#25345;中问?#30340;性骚扰或性侵犯。盖洛普咨询公司网站11月12日报道,美国疾病控制与预防?#34892;?#21457;布的报告显示,全国18.3%的女性有过被强奸的经历。担心自己遭受性侵害的美国女性比例已上升至36%,创2011年以来的最高水平。(注40)



        High occurrence rate of sexual harassment and assault. As reported by National Public Radio on February 21, 2018, an online survey found that 81 percent of women had experienced some form of sexual harassment during their lifetime. It also found that 51 percent had been sexually touched without their permission, and 27 percent said they had survived sexual assault (www.npr.org, February 21, 2018). As reported by Des Moines Register on October 14, 2018, about two-dozen Iowa legislators and staff members were involved in the Anderson case of sexual harassment. Being afraid of losing job or retaliation, the victims had to remain silent for over 10 years. The state government paid a settlement of 1.75 million U.S. dollars. As reported by USA Today on September 26, sexual harassment and assault have become a systemic issue in Hollywood. According to an industry-wide survey, 94 percent of the surveyed women would have experienced some form of harassment or abuse during their career. As reported by Gallup on November 12, a U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report found that 18.3 percent of women were the victims of rape at some point in their lifetime. The report also found that the percentage of the U.S. women who say they worry about being a victim of sexual assault has edged up to 36 percent, the highest this figure has been since 2011 (news.gallup.com, November 12, 2018).


        女性遭受暴力侵犯。美国国家司法研?#20811;?#30340;研究显示,超过五分之四的印第安人和阿拉斯加原住民女性在一生中经历过暴力,其中超过一半的女性经历过性暴力。《赫芬顿?#26102;ā?#32593;站2018年11月14日报道,国家犯罪信息?#34892;?#20165;2016年就收到5712例有关原住民妇女失踪的案件报告。《洛杉矶时报》网站10月8日报道,2006年至2014年间,美国5000多名女性被现?#20301;?#21069;亲密伴侣枪杀。



        Women under violent offending. Research by the U.S. National Institute of Justice showed that over four in five American Indian and Alaska Native women have experienced violence in their lifetime, and more than half of them have experienced sexual violence. As reported by Huffington Post on November 14, 2018, 5,712 cases of missing Native women nationwide were reported to the U.S. National Crime Information Center in 2016 alone. As reported by Los Angeles Times on October 8, 2018, between 2006 and 2014, more than 5,000 women were shot and killed by a current or former intimate partner.


        男女薪酬差距显著。根据美国人口普查局的数据,美国平均性别工资差距约为19.5%,女性平均收入仅为?#34892;?#30340;80.5%。(注41)男女收入?#23548;?#24046;距比统计数据还要大。长期来看,女性收入比?#34892;?#30340;一半还要略低。在全职工作者中,拥有准学士学位的女性薪酬低于仅拥有高中文凭的?#34892;裕?#25317;有硕士学位的女性薪酬低于拥有学士学位的?#34892;浴?#22522;于性别的工资差距一直在危害女性及其家庭。(注42)



        Significant wage gap between men and women. According to date from the U.S. Census Bureau, the average gender pay gap in the United States is around 19.5 percent, and a woman earns only 80.5 percent of the wage a man earns (www.businessinsider.com, August 27, 2018). The gender wage gap was even worse than the statistics. In the long term, women made slightly less than half of men's incoming. Among full-time, year-round workers, women with associate's degrees were paid less than men with just a high school diploma, and women with master's degrees were paid less than men with bachelor's degrees. A gender-based wage gap continues to harm women and their families (www.huffingtonpost.com, November 28, 2018; www.nationalpartnership.org, April and September, 2018).


        职场歧视普遍存在。?#27602;?#37329;山纪事报》网站2018年12月21日报道,美国职场对?#25032;?#21644;哺乳期女性的歧视普遍存在。在科学?#38469;?#39046;域工作的女性中,有50%的受访者表示在工作中经历过性别歧?#21360;?#32422;70%的女性受访者表示,在政界和商界担任高层领导职位的女性太少。(注43)



        Prevalent discrimination in workplace. According to a report by San Francisco Chronicle on December 21, 2018, discrimination against pregnant women and new mothers remains widespread in the U.S. workplace. Half of women working in science, technology, engineering or math jobs have experienced gender discrimination in the workplace. About 70 percent of women said that there were too few women in political and business leadership positions (www.pewsocialtrends.org, January 9 and September 20, 2018).


        女性对社会地位的不满情绪高涨。盖洛普咨询公司网站2018年1月10日报道,46%的女性受访者对自己的社会地位表示不满或非常不满,这一比例在2008年的调查中为30%。《纽约时报》网站2018年1月20日报道,数百万人参?#21360;?018女性游行?#20445;?#23545;现任政府政策表示强烈抗议。



        Upsurge of women's discontent sentiment about their social positions. The Gallup website reported on January 10, 2018, that 46 percent of women in the United States said they were very or somewhat dissatisfied with their position in society, up from 30 percent in 2008, when Gallup last asked the question. As reported by The New York Times on January 20, 2018, millions attended the Women's March 2018 to show intense protest against the government's policies.


        七、移民悲剧不断上演



        VII. Continuous Tragedies for Immigrants


        美国政府污蔑和暴力对待移民,不人道的移民政策?#24656;贫?#31461;与?#25913;?#20998;离,寻求庇护的妇女、儿童惨遭虐待和性侵,儿童死亡?#24405;?#20196;人震惊,受到联合国和国际社会严厉谴责。



        The U.S government used slanders and violence against immigrants. Inhumane immigration policies forcibly separated migrant children from their parents. Women and children seeking shelter and asylum were suffering from abuses and sexual assaults. Death incidents of children were appalling. All these practices of the United States drew strong condemnation from the United Nations and the international community.


        污蔑和暴力对待移民。《大西洋月刊》网站12月12日报道,美国政府2017年开始将在美国长期生活的越南、柬埔寨等国移民驱逐出境,声称这些移民是“暴力罪犯?#34180;!?#21326;盛顿?#26102;ā?1月26日报道,美国?#26412;?#22810;次在美国与墨西哥边境使用催泪瓦斯,阻止来自中美洲的移民,导致多人受伤。2018年11月28日,联合国人权理事会任意拘留问题工作组主席兼报告员、人权与国际团结问题独立专家、健康权问题特别报告员、住房权问题特别报告员、“人权卫士”问题特别报告员、移民人权问题特别报告员、当代?#38382;?#31181;族歧视问题特别报告员、酷刑问题特别报告员、贩运人口问题特别报告员、消除对妇女歧视问题工作组主席发表联合声明,批评美国政府高层违反国际人权标准、发表种族主义和排外主义?#26376;?#24182;采取相关行动,对移民和难民进行污名化,将其视为罪犯和?#25353;?#26579;病?#20445;?#20174;而助长不容忍、种族仇恨和排外情绪,营造对非白人充满敌意的社会环境等。



        Slander and violence against immigrants. The Atlantic website reported on December 12, 2018 that the U.S. government began in 2017 pursuing the deportation of many long-term immigrants from Vietnam, Cambodia and other countries, alleging that these immigrants were "violent criminal aliens." The Washington Post reported on November 26, 2018 that the U.S. authorities fired tear gas on multiple occasions at the U.S. border with Mexico to stop immigrants from Central America, causing many injuries.


        On November 28, 2018, UN experts including Chair-Rapporteur of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Independent Expert on human rights and international solidarity, Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living, and on the right to non-discrimination in this context, Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders, Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children and Chair of the Working Group on the issue of discrimination against women in law and in practice, jointly issued letters to voice their concerns about the racist and xenophobic languages and practices used by U.S. authorities, which fly in the face of international human rights standards. The letters said that the official response in that country stigmatises migrants and refugees, equating them with crime and epidemics, which also fuels a climate of intolerance, racial hatred and xenophobia against those perceived as non-white, creating hostile emotional environments.


        移民政策致使儿童与?#25913;?#39592;肉分离。《纽约时报》网站2018年5月12日报道,美国政府2018年4月开始实施“零容忍”政策,边?#25345;?#27861;人员在逮捕非法入境者时,?#24656;?#23558;其未成年子女另行安置,导致至少2000名儿童被迫与家人分离。英国《卫报》网站6月16日报道,美国国土安全部的数据显示,4月19日至5月31日期间,共有1995名儿童在美国南部边境被?#24656;?#31163;开?#25913;?#23478;人。该政策在美国国?#35817;?#22269;际社会遭致潮水般的严厉批评与抗议。英国《卫报》网站6月23日报道,英国儿童事务专员安妮·?#21490;贫?#24503;指出,?#25276;?#23376;和?#25913;?#20998;开对他们来?#23548;?#27531;忍又痛苦,会造成长期的情感伤害。英国一位犹太教领袖劳拉·詹纳-?#27515;?#26031;纳将美国这一不人道的政策与种族灭绝相提并论。



        Immigration polices separating children from parents. The New York Times website reported on May 12, 2018 that the U.S. government introduced a new "zero tolerance" policy, calling for criminal prosecution of everyone who enters the country illegally, in April. Minor children must be taken from the parents who are in custody in the process. As a result, more than 2,000 migrant children have been separated from their parents. The Guardian website reported on June 16 that according to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security figures, a total of 1,995 minors were forcibly separated from their families between 19 April and 31 May 2018 at the U.S. southern border. This policy had drawn waves of strong criticism and protests from the U.S. society and the international community. An article on The Guardian website on June 23 quoted Anne Longfield, the children's commissioner for England, as saying that separating children from their parents is cruel and deeply distressing for them. In some it will cause long-lasting emotional damage. Laura Janner-Klausner, a leading British rabbi, drew a parallel between the policy and historical trends that have led to genocide.


        寻求庇护的妇女、儿童惨遭虐待和性侵。英国《独立报》网站2018年5月23日报道,美国边?#25345;?#27861;人员虐待寻求庇护儿童的案件数量惊人增长。有116起虐待寻求庇护儿童的?#24405;?#34987;披露,涉事人员被指控对5至17岁的儿童进行身体、性或心理上的虐待。《得克萨斯州论坛报》网站6月20日报道,休斯敦南部的施隆收容所被指控强迫移民儿童服用精神控制药物,导致儿童头痛、情绪低落、敏?#34218;?#24352;、恐惧等。美国移民委?#34987;?#32593;站8月30日报道,亚特兰大移民拘留?#34892;?#21355;生条件糟糕,被拘留的移民经常受到“关禁闭”和“单独囚禁”等惩罚。(注44)



        Women and children seeking asylum suffered from abuses and sexual assaults. The website of The Independent on May 23, 2018 said there has been a startling increase in the number of instances where US Border Patrol officers have abused children seeking shelter in the United States. It quoted a previous disclosure from the American Civil Liberties Union that detailed 116 incidents where officers were alleged to have physically, sexually, or psychologically abused children between the ages of five and 17. The Texas Tribune website reported on June 20, 2018 that children held at the Shiloh Treatment Center, a government contractor south of Houston that houses immigrant minors, were subdued with powerful psychiatric drugs. The children were forcibly injected with medications that made them dizzy, listless and afraid of people and caused some long-term side effects. According to a report on the American Immigration Council website on August 30, the Atlanta City Detention Center, used by the U.S. authorities to hold individuals in immigration proceedings, were found to have problems such as unsanitary environment and rampant use of lockdown and isolation (immigrationimpact.com, August 30, 2018).


        《纽约时报》网站11月12日报道,得克萨斯州边境巡逻队的执法人员埃斯特班·曼扎纳?#23376;?#21040;3名寻求庇护的女性移民,其中有2名未成年人。他将3人驱赶到距边境16英里的一个树林,在?#25250;?#24615;侵了一名女孩,毒打了另外两人,之后把流血不止的她们扔在?#26031;?#26408;?#28798;小?#26816;方提供的信息显示,得克萨斯州南部过去4年至少有10人被边?#25345;?#27861;人员绑架、强奸或谋杀。美国有线电视新闻网12月26日报道,7岁的危地马拉女孩杰奎琳·卡奥12月8日在被美国海关及边境保卫局拘留后不到48小时死亡。12月24日平安夜,又一名8岁的危地马拉男孩费利佩·阿隆佐-戈麦斯在该机构监管下死亡。



        The New York Times website reported on November 12, 2018 that Esteban Manzanares, a Border Patrol agent in Texas, driven three women, including two teenagers, who crossed border to seek shelter, to an isolated, wooded area 16 miles outside the border city. There he sexually assaulted one girl and viciously attacked two others and left them, finally, to bleed in the brush. The report said that over the past four years, at least 10 people in South Texas have been victims of murder, kidnapping or rape by Border Patrol agents. According to a report by the CNN on December 26, 2018, Jakelin Caal Maquin, a 7-year-old girl from Guatemala, died December 8 in the custody of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, fewer than 48 hours after CBP detained her. Another 8-year-old Guatemalan boy, Felipe Alonzo-Gomez, died late Christmas Eve in the agency's custody.


        联合国机构严厉谴责美国移民政策。2018年6月2日,联合国人权与国际团结问题独立专家依照联合国人权理事会第35/3号决议提交报告指出,美国政府奉行民粹主义,使用带有种族主义和仇外色彩的措辞污蔑和诋毁移民,并将儿童与其寻求庇护的?#25913;?#24378;行分开,上述行径严重危及移民的生命权、尊严和自由权等多项人权。(注45)英国《卫报》网站6月5日报道,联合国人权官员拉维?#21462;?#27801;?#21453;?#23612;称:“将拘留和?#24656;?#25286;散家庭作为威慑非正常入境人员的手?#21361;?#36829;反了人权标准和原则。美国应立即停?#20849;?#25955;家庭的做法。”她呼吁美国作为全世界唯一未批准《儿童权利公约》的国家应充分尊重儿童权利。



        Strong condemnation of the U.S. immigration policies from UN institutions. A report of the UN Independent Expert on human rights and international solidarity, submitted in accordance with Human Rights Council resolution 35/3, criticized the populism and the racist and xenophobic languages to describe immigrants used by the U.S. administration as well as practices to separate children from their parents. It said these practices had imperiled the immigrants' human rights, including their rights to life, dignity and liberty (UN document A/73/206). A report by The Guardian website on June 5, 2018 quoted Ravina Shamdasani, a UN human rights official, as saying that "the use of immigration detention and family separation as a deterrent [against illegal immigration] runs counter to human rights standards and principles. The US should immediately halt this practice." She noted that the United States was the only country in the world not to have ratified the UN convention on the rights of the child. She called on the United States to fully respect children's rights.


        2018年6月22日,联合国人权理事会移民人权问题特别报告员、?#26519;?#20154;权利问题特别报告员、残疾人权利问题特别报告员、贩卖和性剥削儿童问题特别报告员、酷刑问题特别报告员、健康权问题特别报告员、任意拘留问题工作组副主席、消除对妇女歧视问题工作组主席、当代?#38382;?#31181;族歧视问题特别报告员、贩运人口问题特别报告员、任意拘留问题工作组主席兼报告员、消除对妇女歧视问题工作组主席、打击针对妇女暴力问题特别报告员、当代种族歧视问题特别报告员发表联合声明,称美国政府?#24656;?#23558;数千名移民儿童与?#25913;?#20998;离并羁?#28023;?#36829;反国际人权标准。针对儿童的惩罚性措施严重影响其发展,在?#25215;?#24773;况下可能构成酷刑。利用儿童来阻止非正常移民是不可接受的。



        On June 22, 2018, a group of UN experts, including Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples, Special Rapporteur on the rights of persons with disabilities, Special Rapporteur on the sale and sexual exploitation of children, Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Special Rapporteur on the right to health, Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children, Chair-Rapporteur of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Chairperson of the Working Group on the issue of discrimination against women in law and in practice, Special Rapporteur on violence against women and Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, jointly issued a statement saying that forcibly separating thousands of migrant children from their parents and holding them in detention violated international human rights standards. It said detention of children is punitive, severely hampers their development, and in some cases may amount to torture. "Children are being used as a deterrent to irregular migration, which is unacceptable."


        八、单边主义不得人心



        VIII. Unilateralism is Losing Ground


        美国推卸国际责?#21361;?#32902;无忌惮地推行“美国优?#21462;?#30340;单边主义政策,不断上演“退群”戏码,恃强凌弱,海外军事行动导致人权灾难,成为国际社会普遍谴责的?#22885;櫸持?#36896;者?#34180;?/p>



        The United States shirked international responsibilities, carried out the unilateralist America First policies unscrupulously, repeatedly withdrew from international organizations, bullied the weak, and caused human rights disasters in its overseas military operations, and became a "trouble maker" that the international community widely condemned.


        退出联合国人权理事会。继退出应对气候变化的《巴黎协定》等国际条约和联合国教科文组织等国际组织后,2018年6月19日,美国悍然宣?#32426;?#20986;联合国人权理事会。此前一天,联合国人权事务高级专员办公室刚?#24352;?#20987;了美国在边境地区将移民儿童与?#25913;盖恐?#20998;离的做法。《大西洋月刊》网站2018年6月20日报道,人权专家称美国此举最阴险的意图是为了防止自身受到侵犯人权的指控。



        Withdrawal from the UN Human Rights Council. After withdrawing from international treaties such as the Paris Climate Agreement and international organizations including the UNESCO, the United States brazenly announced its withdrawal from the UN Human Rights Council on June 19, 2018. Just a day earlier, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights criticized the United States for forcibly separating children from their parents after they crossed the border into the U.S. According to a report released by The Atlantic on June 20, 2018, human rights expert said that one of Trump's most likely, and most insidious, arguments for the move was to prevent the United States from being called out on its own alleged human-rights abuses.


        减少人道主义援助。美国政府8月31日宣布将停止向联合国巴勒斯坦难民救?#27809;?#26500;提供援助,并威胁要取消美国在约旦河西岸?#22270;由?#22320;带向巴勒斯坦方面提供的超过2亿美元援助项目。此举将加剧本已严峻的人道主义局势。(注46)



        Reduction of humanitarian aid. The State Department announced on August 31 that the United States would no longer contribute to the United Nations relief agency for Palestinian refugees, and threatened to cancel the assistance programs to Palestine worth over 200 million U.S. dollars in the West Bank and Gaza, aggravating the already serious humanitarian situation in the area (www.washingtonpost.com, August 31, 2018; edition.cnn.com, August 31, 2018).


        拒不关?#23637;?#22612;那摩监狱。美国不顾多年来国际社会的强烈谴责和呼吁,违背?#20449;导?#32493;运行臭名昭著的关塔那摩监狱。大部分被关押在关塔那摩监狱的人都未经审?#23567;#?#27880;47)《洛杉矶时报》网站2018年7月26日报道,一名被误认为是极端主义分子的巴基斯坦人,未经审判被关押在关塔那摩监狱长达14年之久,屡遭酷刑折磨,身体和精神遭受严重损害。



        Refusal to close Guantanamo military prison. Despite years of strong condemnation and appeal from the international community, the United States decided to break its promise and keep the notorious Guantanamo military prison in Cuba open. Most of the prisoners were without trial (www.aljazeera.com, February 1, 2018). Los Angeles Times reported on its website on July 26, 2018 that a Pakistani, mistaken for an extremist, was imprisoned and tortured in Guantanamo for as long as 14 years without trial, resulting in serious physical and mental damage.


        海外军事行动造?#21892;?#27665;伤亡。美国有线电视新闻网2018年4月14日报道,美国联合盟?#35328;?#27809;有确凿证据且未经联合国安理会授权的情况下,以打击叙利亚政府化学武器设施之名对叙利亚发动空袭。英国《卫报》网站11月28日报道,美国在阿富汗赫尔曼?#29575;?#21457;动空袭,造成至少30名平民死亡,死者中有妇女和16名儿童。根据联合国统计数据,2018年前9个月美国在阿富汗的空袭造成的平民伤亡人数已经超过2009年以来的任何一年。(注48)



        Civilian casualties as result of overseas military operations. According to a CNN report on April 14, 2018, the United States and its allies, without concrete evidence or UN Security Council authorization, launched a strike on Syria in the name of striking Syrian chemical weapon facilities. The Guardian reported on November 28 that at least 30 Afghan civilians, including women and 16 children, were killed in U.S. air strikes in the Afghan province of Helmand. The United Nations said the number of civilian casualties from air strikes in the first nine months of 2018 was already higher than in any entire year since at least 2009 (www.theguardian.com, November 28, 2018; www.latimes.com, November 30, 2018).


        美联社2018年11月14日报道,美国在也门发动的无人机战争已有16年,造成大量平民伤亡。仅在2018年的一次无人机袭击中,至少有30名死者是平民。统计显示,2017年和2018年美国已经进行了176次无人机袭击,死亡人数则高达205人。美国有线电视新闻网12月16日报道,战乱中的也门爆发大规模饥荒和霍乱,超过2200万人需要人道主义援助,约8.5万名5岁以下幼童因饥饿?#22270;?#30149;等原因死亡。美参议员?#27515;?#26031;·墨菲评论?#25285;?#32654;国支持发动的战争使也门成为人间地狱?#20445;?#27599;个平民的死亡?#21152;?#32654;国的印记?#34180;?/p>



        Associated Press reported on November 14, 2018 that the United States had been engaged in a drone war in Yemen for 16 years, causing a large number of civilian casualties. At least 30 civilians were killed in a drone strike in 2018. Statistics showed that the United States had launched 176 drone strikes in 2017 and 2018, leading to 205 deaths. CNN reported on December 16, 2018 that a war-torn Yemen was in the midst of mass famine and cholera outbreak, with more than 22 million people requiring humanitarian assistance and protection. An estimated 85,000 children under the age of 5 in Yemen may have died from starvation and disease. Chris Murphy, a U.S. senator, said "US is enabling war that has made Yemen a hell on earth for civilians." "There is a US imprint on each of these civilian deaths."


        (注1)美国联邦调查局网站(https://ucr.fbi.gov)。


        (注2)《华尔街日报?#32602;?018年8月9日。


        (注3)美国枪支暴力档案室网站(https://www.gunviolencearchive.org),2019年2月24日数据。


        (注4)《华盛顿?#26102;ā?#32593;站(https://www.washingtonpost.com),2018年5月19日。


        (注5)美国全国广播公司网站(https://www.nbcnews.com),2018年11月9日。


        (注6)“第十九条”网站(https://www.article19.org),2018年5月2日。


        (注7)路透社网站(https://uk.reuters.com),2018年11月19日。


        (注8)美国公民自由联合会网站(https://www.aclu.org),2018年8月22日。


        (注9)《芝加哥论坛报》网站(https://www.chicagotribune.com),2018年6月28日;《国会山报》网站(https://thehill.com),2018年9月6日;美国有线电视新闻网(https://edition.cnn.com),2018年10月5日。


        (注10)《纽约客》网站(https://www.newyorker.com),2018年2月6日。


        (注11)美国司法部网站(https://www.justice.gov)。


        (注12)美国政治捐献数据库网站(https://www.opensecrets.org),2018年11月8日。


        (注13)《今日美国报》网站(https://www.usatoday.com),2018年11月16日。


        (注14)《今日美国报》网站(https://www.usatoday.com),2018年7月12日和11月16日。


        (注15)《今日美国报》网站(https://www.usatoday.com),2018年10月10日和11月19日。


        (注16)《华盛顿?#26102;ā?#32593;站(https://www.washingtonpost.com),2018年6月25日。


        (注17)《今日美国报》网站(https://www.usatoday.com),2018年7月17日和10月1日。


        (注18)《华盛顿?#26102;ā?#32593;站(https://www.washingtonpost.com),2018年6月25日。


        (注19)盖洛普咨询公司网站(https://news.gallup.com),2018年12月10日。


        (注20)美国广播公司网站(https://abcnews.go.com),2018年12月17日。


        (注21)《今日美国报》网站(https://www.usatoday.com),2018年10月1日。


        (注22)加利福尼?#20405;?#23457;计局网站(http://www.auditor.ca.gov)。


        (注23)《今日美国报》网站(https://www.usatoday.com),2018年8月14日。


        (注24)《纽约时报》网站(https://www.nytimes.com),2018年8月15日;《今日美国报》网站(https://www.usatoday.com),2018年11月29日和12月18日。


        (注25)联合国文件A/73/18,A/73/312,A/73/305。


        (注26)《今日美国报》网站(https://www.usatoday.com),2018年12月4日。


        (注27)《今日美国报》网站(https://www.usatoday.com),2018年4月15日;美国广播公司网站(https://abcnews.go.com),2018年4月19日。


        (注28)英国《卫报》网站(https://www.theguardian.com),2018年5月28日。


        (注29)美国死刑信息?#34892;?#32593;站(https://deathpenaltyinfo.org),2018年12月14日。


        (注30)美国有线电视新闻网(https://edition.cnn.com),2018年10月27日;《今日美国报》网站(https://www.usatoday.com),2018年10月29日。


        (注31)《洛杉矶时报》网站(https://www.latimes.com),2018年11月13日报道。


        (注32)美国经济政策研?#20811;?#32593;站(https://www.epi.org),2018年2月26日。


        (注33)消除无家可归问题联盟网站(https://endhomelessness.org),2018年6月6日。


        (注34)《今日美国报》网站(https://www.usatoday.com),2018年2月14日。


        (注35)《今日美国报》网站(https://www.usatoday.com),2018年8月14日和9月24日。


        (注36)《今日美国报》网站(https://www.usatoday.com),2018年7月26日。


        (注37)《芝加哥论坛报?#32602;?018年12月19日。


        (注38)《今日美国报》网站(https://www.usatoday.com),2018年10月1日和10月10日。


        (注39)美国国家公共电台网站(https://www.npr.org),2018年2月21日。


        (注40)盖洛普咨询公司网站(https://news.gallup.com),2018年11月12日。


        (注41)《美国经济内幕》网站(https://www.businessinsider.com),2018年8月27日。


        (注42)《赫芬顿?#26102;ā?#32593;站(https://www.huffingtonpost.com),2018年11月28日;美国国家妇女与家庭伙伴关系网站(http://www.nationalpartnership.org),2018年4月和9月。


        (注43)皮尤研?#24656;行?#32593;站(http://www.pewsocialtrends.org),2018年1月9日和9月20日。


        (注44)美国移民委?#34987;?#32593;站(http://immigrationimpact.com),2018年8月30日。


        (注45)联合国文件(A/73/206)。


        (注46)《华盛顿?#26102;ā?#32593;站(https://www.washingtonpost.com),2018年8月31日;美国有线电视新闻网(https://edition.cnn.com),2018年8月31日。


        (注47)卡塔尔半岛电视台网站(https://www.aljazeera.com),2018年2月1日。


        (注48)英国《卫报》网站(https://www.theguardian.com),2018年11月28日;《洛杉矶时报》网站(https://www.latimes.com),2018年11月30日。





        (来源:新华网)


        (Source: Xinhua)





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